The human eye is a remarkable organ that helps us to see the world around us. However, there are several eye diseases that can impact our vision and even lead to blindness. There are hundreds of eye diseases, some of which are relatively common and some of which are extremely unusual. Approximately, two million individuals in the United Kingdom are blind. In this article, we will provide an A to Z list of eye diseases including their causes, symptoms, and treatments.


Age-related macular degeneration is a common eye disease that affects people over the age of 50. The disease causes a deterioration of the macula, which is the central part of the retina that is responsible for sharp, central vision. Symptoms include blurred vision, difficulty reading, and seeing straight lines.

AMBLYOPIA (Lazy eye)

Amblyopia (also known as lazy eye) is a kind of deficient eyesight that normally affects just one eye but, in rare cases, both eyes. It occurs when there is a breakdown in the way the brain and the eye operate together, and the brain is unable to perceive sight from one eye.


Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are birth defects in the eyes. Anophthalmia occurs when a new baby is born with one or both eyes missing. Microphthalmia is when one or both of a baby’s eyes are too tiny. These disorders are uncommon and can result in vision loss or blindness.


Astigmatism is a common eye condition that causes your vision to be fuzzy or distorted. It occurs when the shape of your cornea (the transparent front layer of your eye) or lens (an inner element of your eye that helps the eye focus) differs from normal.


Behcet’s disease is an uncommon syndrome that causes blood vessel damage. This can lead to issues in many areas of your body, including your eyes. This is a chronic condition (long-term). Yet, there can be times when your symptoms disappear, a condition known as remission.


Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is a hereditary condition that affects only a few people. Crystals of fatty acids form in your cornea (the transparent outer layer at the front of your eye) and retina in BCD (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of the eye).


Blepharitis is a frequent eye disease that causes red, swollen, irritated, and itchy eyelids. It can create dandruff-like crusty flakes on your eyelashes. Blepharitis can be painful. So far, it is not contagious and normally does not cause long-term harm to your eyes.


Blepharospasm (also known as benign essential Blepharospasm) is the inability to regulate blinking or other eyelid motions such as twitching. Twitching of the eyelids normally subsides on its own. Those with benign essential Blepharospasm, on the other hand, could have severe and persistent (long-term) eyelid twitching.


A cataract is a clouded spot in your eye's lens (the clear part of the eye that helps to focus light). Cataracts are quite frequent as people age. In fact, more than half of all Americans aged 80 and up have cataracts or have had cataract surgery.


Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is an eye disorder that affects the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. It occurs when a blood clot stops the primary vein from which blood flows out of the retina. It normally only affects one eye.


Cerebral visual impairment (also known as cortical visual impairment or CVI) is a condition caused by injury to the areas of the brain responsible for vision processing. It is most frequent in babies and young kids, but it can remain in maturity.


Coloboma is a genetic disorder that affects the eyes. It occurs when a portion of the eye’s tissue is absent. It can damage either one or both eyes.


Colour blindness indicates that you view colours differently than most people. Colour blindness makes it hard to tell the difference between different colours most of the time.


Convergence insufficiency is an eye condition which affects how your eyes collaborate while looking at surrounding things. When looking at objects up close, such as a book or a smartphone screen, this can produce blurry or double vision.


The cornea is the transparent outer layer of the eye at the front. The cornea helps your eye in focusing light so that you can see well.


Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disorder that can lead to vision loss and blindness in diabetes. It has an effect on the blood vessels in the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye).


Dry eye occurs when your eyes do not produce enough tears to keep your eyes moist, or when your tears do not function properly. This can make your eyes feel irritated and, in rare circumstances, cause vision issues.

Farsightedness is a refractive condition that causes close things to appear blurry. It occurs when the shape of the eye causes light to focus behind, rather than on, the retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye).

Floaters are little black shapes that appear and disappear in your eyesight. They can take the form of dots, threads, squiggly lines, or even little cobwebs.

Glaucoma is a category of eye disorders that can cause vision loss and blindness by injuring the optic nerve in the back of the eye.


Graves eye disease happens when swelling around the eyes makes them bulge out. It’s caused by Graves’ disease, and it’s also called GED, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, or thyroid eye disease (TED).

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition in which excessive blood pressure in the brain results in headaches and visual abnormalities. Idiopathic, intracranial, and high blood pressure all refer to conditions for which the basic reason is unknown.

Low vision is a vision problem that makes it hard to do everyday activities. It can’t be fixed with glasses, contact lenses, or other standard treatments like medicine or surgery.

Macular oedema is an increase in retinal swelling (the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of your eye). While macular oedema can cause visual loss, therapy can help minimize swelling and avoid it in some patients.

A macular hole is an uncommon disorder of the eye that can impair central vision, which is needed for daily activities like driving and reading. A little region called the macula is located in the retina's middle (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of the eye). Macular holes develop when there is an opening in the macula, generally as a result of stretching or pulling. Most macular holes develop as a result of ageing-related changes to the eye.


A macular pucker is a rare condition of the eyes that can cause wavy or distorted vision. Experts frequently are unaware of the majority of its causes.

A refractive defect called nearsightedness causes distant things to seem fuzzy. It occurs when the eye's shape causes light to focus in front of the retina, a layer of tissue at the front of the eye that is sensitive to light, rather than on it.

Those who have a lung illness known as histoplasmosis can develop an eye disease known as ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS). Histoplasmosis can cause vision loss if the infection spreads from the lungs to the eyes.

Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, is characterized by swelling and redness on the inside of your eyelids and the white area of your eye. Itching and discomfort can also occur in your eye. Pink eye is fairly prevalent, and some varieties of pink eye spread quickly.

Presbyopia is a refractive problem that makes it difficult for middle-aged and elderly people to see objects clearly. It occurs when the lens (an inner portion of the eye that aids in the focus of the eye) refuses to concentrate light appropriately on the retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye).

Refractive errors are a form of vision issue that makes seeing clearly difficult. They occur when the shape of your eye prevents light from properly concentrating on your retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye).

Retinal detachment is an eye disorder that happens when your retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of your eye) is dragged away from its normal state.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an uncommon category of eye illnesses affecting the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of the eye). RP causes cells in the retina to steadily decrease over time, causing in visual loss.

Retinoblastoma is a rare kind of eye cancer that develops in the retina (the light- sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). Retinoblastoma is most frequent in children under the age of five; however, it can occur in older children and adults in rare situations. It can damage either one or both eyes.

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an eye illness that can occur in preterm (early) newborns weighing less than 3 pounds at birth. ROP begins when aberrant blood vessels develop in the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye). Some newborns with ROP have minor cases that improve on their own.

Stargardt disease is a rare genetic eye disorder that occurs when fatty material accumulates on the macula, the tiny portion of the retina required for clear, Centre vision. Vision loss often begins in childhood; however, some patients with Stargardt syndrome do not lose eyesight until they are adults.


Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a disorder that causes inflammation and swelling of the eye and eye socket. It is an autoimmune condition, which indicates that the body’s natural defences are directed against its own cells.

Trachoma is a contagious eye disease. The infection commonly starts in childhood and causes the eyelashes to curl inwards (trichiasis).

Uveal melanoma is an eye cancer. It affects around 6 persons per million. Individuals with a light complexion and blue or grey eyes are especially sensitive.

Usher syndrome is a rare genetic condition that causes hearing and visual problems. It causes deafness or hearing loss, as well as eye illness retinitis pigmentosa (RP). It can also create balance issues at times.

Uveitis is an inflammation of the interior of your eye. Inflammation often occurs when your immune system is battling an illness. Uveitis can occur when your immune system fights an eye infection, but it can also occur when your immune system targets healthy tissue in your eyes. Uveitis can cause discomfort, redness, and vision loss.

The vitreous is the gel-like substance that fills the inside of your eye. It is made up of microscopic fibres that connect to your retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye).


Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic condition that causes vision loss as well as other health issues. It was previously known as DIDMOAD, which stands for diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness.