Introduction to Anatomy /What are Anatomy and Physiology
The word anatomy has been derived from the Greek word “Anatome”, which means to cut up. Anatomy studies structures/parts that compose the organs and finally make up the body. It also explains how those structures relate to one another. The study of anatomy includes many sub-specialties. These are:
- Gross anatomy
- Microscopic anatomy
- Developmental anatomy and
In Gross anatomy, we study body structure without using a microscope. Systemic anatomy studies the functional relationships of organs
within a system, whereas Regional anatomy studies body parts regionally. Both systemic and regional approaches may be used to study gross anatomy
The study of cells and tissues that is also known as Histology is only possible under a microscope. We study cells and tissues in order to understand the foundational bases of the organs. By studying cells and tissues, it becomes easier to understand the anatomical structure of the organs of the body.
Developmental anatomy is a Scientific procedure of understanding the structural changes of an individual from fertilization to adulthood; includes embryology, fetology, and postnatal development.
The study that deals with the prenatal development of gametes, fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses is known as Embryology.
Introduction to Physiology
The word physiology has been derived from the Greek words Physio and Logos, which mean the philosophical inquiry of the nature of things. In medical science, the word physiology is used against the natural functioning of different parts, and organs of the body of an organism.
Anatomy and Physiology are two correlated subjects, which work parallel to make the subject convenient for the students.
When structure and function are coordinated the body achieves relative stability in its internal environment called homeostasis / staying the same. Although the external environmental changes constantly, the internal environment of a healthy body remains the same within normal limits. Under normal conditions, homeostasis is maintained by adaptive mechanisms ranging from a control center in the brain to chemical substances called hormones that are secreted by various organs directly into the blood streams. Some of the functions controlled by homeostasis mechanisms are blood pressure, body temperature, breathing, and heart rate.